Boletim ENSP nº 5 - 28 de Janeiro de 2011 PDF Versão para impressão Enviar por E-mail
Domingo, 06 Fevereiro 2011 19:00



Issue 5, 28 January - 3 February 2011

FRANCE: Short film- Don't be duped by tobacco

The short film ‘Don't be duped by tobacco’ is part of a campaign by the Non-Smokers' Rights Association Droits des Non Fumeurs.
Reproduced with kind permission of Droits des Non Fumeurs.
27 January 2011

POLAND: Cigarette smugglers avoid Poland

The number of people stopped at the Polish border for smuggling cigarettes is dropping, reports Rzeczpospolita.
Customs officers explain that's because tobacco smugglers are looking for easier borders from where they can bring their contraband across. Since Poland ramped up the crack down on illegal cigarettes entering the country, smuggling cartels have been focusing on other countries.
Back in 2009, inspectors guarding the external EU border confiscated more than 606 million illegal cigarettes. Last year, they seized 563 million.

Source : Warsaw Business Journal, 28 January 2011

ROMANIA: Nearly 19 million cigarette packs are seized in 2010

Almost 19 million of cigarette packages were confiscated in Romania, in 2010, by round 56 percent more than over the previous year, reads the report the Romania's Supreme Council of National Defence (CSAT) members presented at the Cotroceni Palace.
The release the Presidential Administration issued at the end of the CSAT meeting assessing the results the state-run institutions obtained in fighting against the tax evasion reads that 'In accordance to the report drawn up by the inter-institutional working Group for prevention and combating tax evasion, there were identified tax evasion activities preponderantly with tobacco, agri-foodstuffs, wood, building materials and alcohol.'
According to the above-mentioned source, fines worth about 46 million euros were levied in 2010, whereas the Public Finance Ministry raised fines worth round 15 million euros. Likewise, the Finance Ministry specialized structures ceased the activity of 4,251 companies and raised additional taxes worth about 1.5 billion euros.

Source:Agerpres, 28 January 2011

UK: Ban fails to stop smokers

Heavy drinking is on the decline across the UK, but the ban on smoking in pubs and restaurants imposed three years ago has failed to have an impact on the country’s hard core of smokers, according to figures released on Thursday.

Some 21 per cent of UK adults said they were smokers in 2009, a proportion unchanged since 2007 when legislation came into force imposing the ban. The average number of cigarettes smoked also remained constant during the period, at 14 per day for men and 13 for women.

Smoking – the leading cause of preventable illness and premature death in the UK – remains twice as common among adults in routine and manual jobs.

The data, part of the general lifestyle survey conducted annually by the Office for National Statistics, show there has been a sharp long-term decline in smoking since 1974, when 45 per cent of adults had the habit. Since then anti-smoking health campaigns, advertising bans and bans on high-tar cigarettes have been introduced.

The figures point to the stalling of efforts among the residual population of smokers and will stoke fresh calls for new public health measures as the government prepares to launch a tobacco strategy.

Source: Financial Times, 27 January 2011

UKRAINE may have cigarette package pictorial health warnings by Euro Cup 2012

The Ukrainian government finally adopted the decree approving pictorial health warnings on cigarette packages. Prior to this, in June 2009, the Ukrainian parliament adopted this measure as part of other anti-tobacco legislation while the Cabinet of Ministers had been hampering signature of the further procedural decree since then. During last December 2010 Ukrainian NGOs, experts and pro-tobacco control Members of Parliament created heavy pressure on the Cabinet of Ministers by organising public actions, letter-writing campaigns and press conferences.

Source: Andriy Skipalskyi, 27 January 2011 contact Este endereço de e-mail está protegido de spam bots, pelo que necessita do Javascript activado para o visualizar
Read more:

STUDY: Brain fault link to smoking desire

A discovery that explains why some people cannot give up tobacco may lead to new anti-smoking treatments.

Scientists have identified a brain pathway which when defective leads to an uncontrollable desire to smoke.

It involves a component, or "subunit", of a receptor protein sensitive to nicotine.

Normally, the pathway dampens down the urge to consume more nicotine when levels of the drug reach a critical level. But in some people the mechanism is faulty, causing them to become hopelessly hooked on tobacco.

Lead researcher Dr Christie Fowler, from the Scripps Research Institute in Jupiter, Florida, US, said: "If the pathway isn't functioning properly, you simply take more. Our data may explain recent human data showing that individuals with genetic variation in the alpha5 nicotinic receptor subunit are far more vulnerable to the addictive properties of nicotine, and far more likely to develop smoking-associated diseases such as lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease." The scientists, whose work is reported in an early online edition of the journal Nature, carried out tests on animals.

Source: The Press Association, 30 January 2011

STUDY: Smoking habits are transmitted from mother to daughter and father to son

A European research group has studied how smoking habits are transmitted within the home. The results show that, in homes where both parents are present, there is a significant degree of inter-generational transmission of smoking habits between parents and children, particularly between individuals of the same gender.

"Fathers transmit their smoking habits to a statistically significant level to their sons, and the same is true of mothers and daughters. However, if a mother smokes it does not seem to impact on the probability of her son smoking, and similarly a father that smokes does not affect his daughter", Loureiro, a researcher at the USC and co-author of the study, tells SINC.

The research, which has been published in the journal Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, is based on information from the British Household Panel Survey 1994-2002. "We selected this data source because it gives detailed information on the products consumed in households, including tobacco, making it possible to analyse the transmission of smoking habits between generations", the experts explain.

Source: AlphaGalileo Foundation (UK), 28 January 2011

STUDY: Cancer patients unlikely to seek help to quit smoking

Although most patients diagnosed with cancer report receiving advice to quit smoking, less than half of them actually express an interest in joining a smoking cessation program, according to a study published online Jan. 10 in Cancer.

Mary E. Cooley, R.N., Ph.D., of the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute in Boston, and colleagues investigated whether patients diagnosed with lung or head and neck cancer received advice and support from their health care providers to quit smoking, and their subsequent interest and preferences for participating in cessation programs. Data were collected from questionnaires and medical-record reviews from 160 smokers or recent quitters with lung or head and neck cancer.

Source: Doctors Lounge, 28 January 2011

STUDY: Secondhand smoke laws may reduce childhood ear infections

Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH) researchers and colleagues from Research Institute for a Tobacco Free Society have found that a reduction in secondhand smoking in American homes was associated with fewer cases of otitis media, the scientific name for middle ear infection. The study appears on January 26, 2011, as an online first article on the website of the journal Tobacco Control.

"Our study is the first to demonstrate the public health benefits to children of the increase in smoke-free homes across the nation. It also is the first study to quantify over the past 13 years a reversal in what had been a long-term increasing trend in middle ear infections among children," said lead author Hillel Alpert, research scientist in HSPH's Department of Society, Human Development, and Health. "If parents avoid smoking at home, they can protect their children from the disease that is the most common cause of visits to physicians and hospitals for medical care," he said.

Secondhand smoke (smoke from a burning cigarette combined with smoke exhaled by a smoker) has been shown to increase the level of unhealthy particles in the air, including nicotine and other toxins.

In 2006 the U.S. Surgeon General stated that enough evidence existed to suggest a link between parents' smoking and children's ear infections.

Source: ScienceDaily, 27 January 2011
Tob Control. Published Online First 26 January 2011

Author source: Smoke-free households with children and decreasing rates of paeditric clinical encounters for otitis media in the United States

REPORT: COUNTER MEASURES Preventing Youth Smoking in Scotland

ASH Scotland published Counter Measures, a report funded by Cancer Research UK that describes the passage of Scotland's 2010 Tobacco and Primary Medical Services (Scotland) Act, which introduced a range of youth smoking prevention measures including a ban on point of sale advertising and cigarette sales from vending machines, a register of retailers selling tobacco, and strong penalties for those selling tobacco unregistered.
The report charts the Scottish experience of the legislative passage of the Act, which was strongly resisted by the tobacco industry, and the lessons learned in creating effective youth smoking prevention legislation which we hope will be useful for other countries considering similar legislation.
Any feedback or comments, especially from countries moving towards a display ban or engaged in tobacco industry legal challenges to legislation, would be gratefully received.
The report is available on the ASH Scotland website at:
Source: Sheila Duffy, ASH Scotland, 27 January 2011 - contact: Este endereço de e-mail está protegido de spam bots, pelo que necessita do Javascript activado para o visualizar

CONFERENCE: 15th World Conference on Tobacco OR Health, Singapore, 21-24 March 2012

The World Conference on Tobacco OR Health (WCTOH) is the premier international conference on tobacco control. It is held once every three years, and attracts thousands of academics, public health practitioners, non-government organisations and public officials from more than 100 countries.

The Organising Committee invites you to submit proposals for sessions at the conference from now until 28 February 2011. Proposals are sought for plenaries, symposia, panel discussions and workshops.

This call for proposals aims to garner a wide spectrum of ideas to organise a scientific programme that comprehensively covers all aspects. You are encouraged to submit proposals that are relevant to tobacco control and/or the conference theme Toward a Tobacco-free World: Planning Globally, Acting Locally.

Information on submitting proposals is available at:

Additional information can be found at the conference website:

EVENT: World Cancer Day, the theme of which is cancer prevention, 4 February 2011

On the 4th of February, 2011 the UICC and its partner organisations will run campaigns all over the world to raise awareness for a disease that causes millions of deaths every year, many of which could have been prevented.

More than ever before there is a need for a concerted and coordinated fight against cancer, and we believe that World Cancer Day can play its part by providing an even bigger platform for your cancer messages.
Cancer and tobacco use:
For all details please go to:

CONFERENCE: ECToH Amsterdam 28-30 March 2011 Program details

Only 59 days before ECToH starts!

More details are now available:

Please see the website for more details:
- The three ECL Young Professional award nominees are known:

- all keynote speakers can be found here:
- program elements such as preconference workshops, satellite meetings, etc
- Don't forget to register and book a room in the conference hotel
- the conference program will be available online within the next two weeks

Conference website:
Message from Fleur van Bladeren on behalf of the Executive Committee of ECToH, 28 January 2011

CONFERENCE AND TRAINING: Smokefree Homes and Cars - Protecting Children and Families - 3 March 2011 - Dundee Hilton Hotel, Scotland

A conference to better equip communities to reduce exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS) in private homes and cars.

More than half of babies and young children from poorer backgrounds are regularly exposed to SHS in the home, compared with less than a fifth of UK children from families with a professional background.  Exposure to SHS in childhood is associated with reduced lung function, middle ear disease, an increased risk of respiratory symptoms and a higher incidence of respiratory tract infections.  SHS exposure has also been shown to be a cause of cot death.

Sharpen your knowledge of the issues around SHS and learn what people in health boards and local communities are doing to remove the danger.  You may even cultivate the skills to give sensitive advice to householders yourself by enrolling in on-the-day brief advice training.

This event is organised by the Scottish Tobacco Control Alliance (STCA)

More information is available at:,-3rd-march-2011

DG SANCO updated organisational chart

The newly updated DG SANCO organisational chart can be found at:

Source: EC DG SANCO Date published: 2 February 2011

UK EVENT: No Smoking Day – 9 March 2011

All details regarding this annual event can be found at:

Boletim ENSP nº 4 21-27 de Janeiro de 2011 PDF Versão para impressão Enviar por E-mail
Terça, 01 Fevereiro 2011 21:50

Boletim nº 4 21-27 de Janeiro de 2011 da ENSP. Leia noticias europeias sobre tabaco.




Issue 4, 21-27 January 2011

· REPORT: Smoking may be associated with increased risk of breast cancer

· BULGARIAN PM announces new smoking ban deadline

· FCTC COP grants ENSP observer status

· RESEARCH: Anti-estrogens linked to fewer lung cancer deaths

· PHILIP MORRIS up for a Public Eye Award - voting closes next week

· WHO FCTC Convention Secretariat Newsletter

· ESTONIA: Black market smokes on the rise

· JERSEY smokers to see graphic images on cigarette packs

· SPAIN: Smoking inspections to be intensified

· SPAIN: Spanish town rebels against anti-smoking law

· UK SCOTLAND: Legal appeal delays tobacco display ban in Scotland

· UK SCOTLAND: BBC exposes tobacco crime gangs in Scotland

· STUDY: Shock findings in Scotland's first smoking in cars study

· STUDY: Spanish heart risk study challenges image of healthy Mediterranean diet and lifestyle

· RESEARCH: Smoking warnings hit home as UK cancer rates drop

· STATISTICS Cancer rates: see how countries compare worldwide

REPORT: Smoking may be associated with increased risk of breast cancer

Smoking before menopause, especially prior to giving birth, may be associated with a modest increase in the risk of developing breast cancer, according to a report in the January 24 issue of Archives of Internal Medicine, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.
"Breast cancer is the most common cancer to affect women worldwide," according to background information in the article. "Tobacco smoke contains potential human breast carcinogens, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, aromatic amines and N-nitrosamines."
Using data collected from the Nurses' Health Study, Fei Xue, M.D., Sc.D., of Brigham and Woman's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, and colleagues examined the records of 111,140 women from 1976 to 2006 for active smoking and 36,017 women from 1982 to 2006 for passive (secondhand) smoking.
A total of 8,772 breast cancer cases developed during follow-up.
"Smoking before menopause was positively associated with breast cancer risk, and there were hints from our results that smoking after menopause might be associated with a slightly decreased breast cancer risk," the authors write.
Source: Eurekalert, 24 January 2011

Related article:Smoking raises breast cancer risk
Press Association, 24 January 2011

BULGARIAN PM announces new smoking ban deadline

The option to introduce a full smoking ban in establishments in Bulgaria in 2013 is on the table, Prime Minister, Boyko Borisov, informs.

Borisov, who is on an official visit to Japan, commented for the media from the Bulgarian Embassy in Tokyo, saying BGN 3 B a year go to health care and smoking is harmful for health. The PM stated he was convinced the ban must apply to even small establishments in Bulgaria.
Source: Novinite, 26 January 2011

FCTC COP grants ENSP observer status

During the fourth session of the FCTC Conference of the Parties in Punta del Este, Uruguay, from 15 to 20 November 2010 ENSP's application for observer status to the COP was approved, together with that of INWAT.
Source : ENSP

ENSP's application is enclosed below.
The COP decision is outlined on page 5 of the document below:
The Rules of Procedure of the FCTC COP are available at:
cf. Rule 29, page 7: Observers

RESEARCH: Anti-estrogens linked to fewer lung cancer deaths

Anti-estrogen drugs such as tamoxifen may reduce a woman's risk of dying from lung cancer, suggests a new study. The analysis included a very small number of women with lung cancer, however, and the findings do not mean that women should take these drugs to prevent or treat lung cancer, doctors say.

Lung cancer kills more people than any other type of cancer. In the United States, over 200,000 people are diagnosed with lung cancer every year, and more than 150,000 die from it.
Research suggests that some hormones, including estrogen, may play a role in the progression of the disease by interacting with lung cancer cells.
Source: Reuters, 24 January 2011

PHILIP MORRIS up for a Public Eye Award - voting closes next week

Philip Morris has been nominated for a Public Eye Award (for worst corporation of the year) for suing (under a bilateral investment treaty) the Uruguay government for its tobacco control measures.
Voting is at

This award tends to get quite a lot of media coverage.
Voting must close by about 27 Jan 2011, because the award is presented at the World Economic Forum at Davos on 28 Jan 2011.
Please circulate amongst your public health, tobacco control, investment treaty, free trade agreement etc networks.
Source: Sanya Reid Smith, Third World Network, 21 January 2011
Contact : Este endereço de e-mail está protegido de spam bots, pelo que necessita do Javascript activado para o visualizar

WHO FCTC Convention Secretariat Newsletter

The newsletter of the Secretariat to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco
Control appears every three months and examines developments in the
implementation of the Convention.

Please see article:
Convention News is available at:

ESTONIA: Black market smokes on the rise

As the Tax and Customs Board has made its battle with the black market for cigarettes this year's priority operation, many otherwise jobless citizens in the border town of Narva have turned smuggling into a life source.
The expanding black market is a result of raising the excise tax to the EU minimum, a 20 percent increase implemented in two annual increments beginning in 2011.

The recession and the fact that cigarettes are three times cheaper in Russia has also invigorated illegal sales to a 10-year high, Marje Josing, director of the Institute of Economic Research, told ETV. In 2008, authorities seized 1.5 million illegal cigarettes in Narva, Estonia's busiest border point with Russia. By 2010, confiscated contraband tripled to 5 million in the town, as well as another 5 million in the rest of Estonia.
Source: Eesti Rahvusringhääling, 21 January 2011

JERSEY smokers to see graphic images on cigarette packs

Jersey politicians have voted in favour of putting graphic images on cigarette packets in the island. It is hoped the graphic images will help the two thirds of smokers who say they want to quit to do so.
Smoking is thought to be the greatest single cause of preventable illness and early death in Jersey, health officials say it kills about 150 people annually.
Cigarette packets will include images of throat cancer, blackened lungs and ageing skin.
Andrew Heaven, head of health improvement, said he also hoped the images will stop young people taking up the habit.
"It is just one of a number of measures we are putting in place to try and persuade people not to take up the habit and encourage smokers to quit.
"These messages and pictures are showing the harm caused by tobacco and encouraging smokers to have a go and quit," he said.
The decision to put graphic warnings on cigarette packets in Jersey has been described as a "welcome step" towards reducing the number of people smoking.
Mr Heaven said he was committed to cutting tobacco use.
He said: "We have over the past ten years done very well and this is all about momentum and making sure we continue to ensure we give every opportunity for those smokers to quit."
Source : BBC News, 24 January 2011

SPAIN: Smoking inspections to be intensified

Spain’s regional governments are recruiting more inspectors to police the new anti-smoking laws. Meanwhile, the legislation introduced on January 2 continues to produce side-effects.

The director general of Public Health, Ildefonso Hernández Aguado, said last week that sanctions were already underway and activity would be increased this month. He said that all the country's regions were following procedures properly and that fines would be issued promptly.

He also claimed that those complaining about the new legislation are just making a noise. In a radio interview on Wednesday, he said that, "There are those who have an interest in concealing the true situation, which is quite normal."
Source: Costa News, 25 January 2011

SPAIN: Spanish town rebels against anti-smoking law

Hotels and restaurants in the northern Spanish town of Palencia closed on Wednesday to protest the country's tough anti-smoking law which took effect this year.
About 100 professionals from the sector also staged a demonstration, some carrying banners saying "If you don't smoke, we don't get paid. Let us live" and "Total ban, sector ruined."

Another said "Zapatero, you should have been a hotelier," referring to Socialist Prime Minister Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero.
Trade associations said 60 to 70 percent of the hotels and restaurants in the town of around 80,000 people closed for the day.
It was the first major demonstration against the anti-smoking law, one of the strictest in Europe, since it was introduced on January 2.
Source: Agence France Presse (AFP), 26 January 2011

UK SCOTLAND: Legal appeal delays tobacco display ban in Scotland

A ban on tobacco displays in shops has been delayed because of an ongoing legal challenge, the Scottish government has said.
The new law, voted in by MSPs at the start of 2010, was due to begin for larger retailers in October this year.
But Imperial Tobacco is appealing against a decision dismissing its original challenge in 2010, meaning the legislation cannot be used.
Ministers say they will announce an implementation date when possible.
The Tobacco and Primary Medical Services Act aims to discourage young people from taking up smoking by banning shops from displaying cigarettes and other tobacco products and restrict cigarette vending machines.
The legislation, which also brought in a tobacco retailers registration scheme, was backed by anti-smoking groups, but criticised by shop owners and the tobacco industry.
Imperial Tobacco's legal challenge on the grounds that the ban was outside the scope of Holyrood's powers was dismissed at the Court of Session in Edinburgh, although the appeal is now expected to be held later this year.
BBC News Scotland, 25 January 2011
Related article: Ban on tobacco displays delayed
Source: Free Scotland on Sunday, Southern Reporter, 25 January 2011

UK SCOTLAND: BBC exposes tobacco crime gangs in Scotland

A BBC investigation has exposed the organised crime groups controlling Scotland's illegal tobacco trade. Illegal products being sold by crime gangs were bought by a BBC Scotland undercover team, who secretly filmed the supply chain.
Half of all hand-rolled tobacco smoked in the UK is now counterfeit, as is one in every five cigarettes.
The illegal trade is estimated to cost the Treasury billions of pounds in lost taxes.
Black market tobacco products, which use the branding of famous names, do not adhere to levels of tar, nicotine and carbon monoxide set out for legitimate products.
Products bought by the BBC team were tested and shown to have the highest levels of toxins recorded in the UK. The results prompted one health expert to warn of a "health timebomb" waiting to explode.
Source: BBC Online 20 January 2011

STUDY: Shock findings in Scotland's first smoking in cars study

Risk factors were similar to those found in the US and UK
Smoking in a car exposes a child passenger to dangerous levels of poisonous particles … and even opening a window doesn't protect them.

These are the stark findings of a study commissioned by leading NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde (NHSGGC) health experts, in collaboration with researchers from the University of Aberdeen.
The findings are so stark that NHSGGC has launched a high profile campaign to persuade the thousands of Scots motorists who continue to smoke and endanger non-smoking passengers to make their cars "smoke free".

The study involved a child sized doll child being fitted in a car seat with the very latest smoke monitoring equipment attached at the doll’s mouth so that precise measurements could be taken. The particles of tobacco poison were so high that they compared with the levels you would expect after being exposed to secondhand smoke in a busy smoke filled pub before the smoking ban.
Source: PhysOrg, 20 January 2011

STUDY: Spanish heart risk study challenges image of healthy Mediterranean diet and lifestyle

A Spanish study has challenged the long-held belief that people in the Mediterranean all enjoy more healthy diets and lifestyles, after discovering alarmingly high cardiovascular risk factors similar to those found in the UK and USA.
Research published in the January issue of IJCP, the International Journal of Clinical Practice, also found strong links between low levels of education and increased risk.
"Cardiovascular diseases account for 33 per cent of deaths in Spain, making it the main cause of mortality in the country" says Dr Ricardo Gómez-Huelgas from the Internal Medicine Department at Hospital Carlos Haya, Malaga.
The study was carried out on a random selection of 2,270 adults attending a healthcare centre in Malaga, Andalucia, a region with one of the highest rates of cardiovascular disease in Spain. The participants ranged from 18 to 80, with an average of just under 44 years, 50.3 per cent were female and 58 per cent had low educational levels.
More than 60 per cent were overweight or obese and 77 per cent did not get enough exercise.
The researchers also found that 28 per cent smoked, 33 per cent had high blood pressure, seven per cent had diabetes and 65 per cent had high cholesterol levels.
Just under 30 per cent of the patients had three or more cardiovascular risk factors that could be modified by changes to their lifestyle or diet.
"Most of the cardiovascular risk factors increased with age, with the exception of smoking and low levels of 'good' cholestererol, and we noted some differences between the sexes" says Dr Gómez-Huelgas.
"We also found that a low education level was associated with a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and this association was significant when it came to smoking, obesity, abdominal obesity and high levels of fatty molecules.
Source: EurekAlert, 24 January 2011
Author Source: Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in an urban adult population from southern Spain.

RESEARCH: Smoking warnings hit home as UK cancer rates drop

Britain has done better than many countries at tackling its 'tobacco epidemic', says government cancer adviser
Around 10 million adults in the UK are smokers: 22% of men and 21% of women, compared with 51% of men and 41% of women in 1974.
Decades of warnings about the dangers of smoking appear to be having an effect, with the UK placed a relatively low 22nd in a world league of highest cancer rates.
The rate for men, 280 cases per 100,000 people, is 33rd in the world, with France the highest.
The rate for British women, however, is 260.5 per 100,000 – the world's 12th highest, with Denmark top.
The UK breast cancer rate for women, just over 89, ranks 11th.

The research, which names Denmark as the world's "cancer capital", was compiled by the World Cancer Research Fund, (WCRF), a London-based charity. The figures are based on analysis of World Health Organisation data.
The government's cancer adviser, Professor Mike Richards, attributes Britain's relatively good position in the table to its early tackling of its "tobacco epidemic" compared with other countries.
While in the past about half Britain's cancer deaths were linked to smoking, now fewer than a third were, he said.
Source: The Guardian, 24 January 2011

STATISTICS Cancer rates: see how countries compare worldwide

Recently we published mortality statistics for England and Wales including figures for cancer. How do they compare with these latest statistics?
We have put together the rankings into a spreadsheet to download along with the rankings of female breast cancer worldwide.
Denmark has topped the highest overall cancer rate in a world ranking of cancer cases by the World Cancer Research Foundation (WCRF).
Source : The Guardian, 24 January 2011

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